What is machine learning?
What is machine learning?
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence that enables systems to learn and predict outcomes without explicit programming. It is often used interchangeably with the term AI because it is the AI technique that has made the greatest impact in the real world to date, and it’s what you’re most likely to use in your business. Chatbots, product recommendations, spam filters, self-driving cars and a huge range of other systems leverage machine learning, as do “intelligent agents” like Siri and Cortana.
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Instead of writing algorithms and rules that make decisions directly, or trying to program a computer to “be intelligent” using sets of rules, exceptions and filters, machine learning teaches computer systems to make decisions by learning from large data sets. Rule-based systems quickly become fragile when they have to account for the complexity of the real world; machine learning can create models that represent and generalize patterns in the data you use to train it, and it can use those models to interpret and analyze new information.
Machine learning is suitable for classification, which includes the ability to recognize text and objects in images and video, as well as finding associations in data or segmenting data into clusters (e.g., finding groups of customers). Machine learning is also adept at prediction, such as calculating the likelihood of events or forecasting outcomes. Machine learning can also be used to generate missing data; for example, the latest version of CorelDRAW uses machine learning to interpolate the smooth stroke you’re trying to draw from multiple rough strokes you make with the pen tool.
At the heart of machine learning are algorithms. Some, such as regressions, k-means clustering and support vector machines, have been in use for decades. Support vector machines, for example, use mathematical methods for representing how a dividing line can be drawn between things that belong in separate categories. The key to effective use of machine learning is matching the right algorithm to your problem.
Machine learning is one of the best field of Computer science.Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides computers with the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can teach themselves to grow and change when exposed to new data. Machine learning studies computer algorithms for learning to do stuff. We might, for instance, be interested in learning to complete a task, or to make accurate predictions, or to behave intelligently. The learning that is being done is always based on some sort of observations or data, such as examples (the most common case in this course), direct experience, or instruction. So in general, machine learning is about learning to do better in the future based on what was experienced in the past. The emphasis of machine learning is on automatic methods. In other words, the goal is to devise learning algorithms that do the learning automatically without human intervention or assistance. The machine learning paradigm can be viewed as “programming by example.” Often we have a specific task in mind, such as spam filtering. But rather than program the computer to solve the task directly, in machine learning, we seek methods by which the computer will come up with its own program based on examples that we provide. Machine learning is a core subarea of artificial intelligence. It is very unlikely that we will be able to build any kind of intelligent system capable of any of the facilities that we associate with intelligence, such as language or vision, without using learning to get there. These tasks are otherwise simply too difficult to solve. Further, we would not consider a system to be truly intelligent if it were incapable of learning since learning is at the core of intelligence. Although a subarea of AI, machine learning also intersects broadly with other fields, especially statistics, but also mathematics, physics, theoretical computer science and more.
Because of new computing technologies, machine learning today is not like machine learning of the past. It was born from pattern recognition and the theory that computers can learn without being programmed to perform specific tasks; researchers interested in artificial intelligence wanted to see if computers could learn from data. The iterative aspect of machine learning is important because as models are exposed to new data, they are able to independently adapt. They learn from previous computations to produce reliable, repeatable decisions and results. It’s a science that’s not new – but one that’s gaining fresh momentum.
While many machine learning algorithms have been around for a long time, the ability to automatically apply complex mathematical calculations to big data – over and over, faster and faster – is a recent development. Here are a few widely publicized examples of machine learning applications you may be familiar with:
The heavily hyped, self-driving Google car? The essence of machine learning.
Online recommendation offers such as those from Amazon and Netflix? Machine learning applications for everyday life.
Knowing what customers are saying about you on Twitter? Machine learning combined with linguistic rule creation.
Fraud detection? One of the more obvious, important uses in our world today.
Most industries working with large amounts of data have recognized the value of machine learning technology. By gleaning insights from this data – often in real time – organizations are able to work more efficiently or gain an advantage over competitors.
Banks and other businesses in the financial industry use machine learning technology for two key purposes: to identify important insights in data, and prevent fraud. The insights can identify investment opportunities, or help investors know when to trade. Data mining can also identify clients with high-risk profiles, or use cybersurveillance to pinpoint warning signs of fraud.
Government agencies such as public safety and utilities have a particular need for machine learning since they have multiple sources of data that can be mined for insights. Analyzing sensor data, for example, identifies ways to increase efficiency and save money. Machine learning can also help detect fraud and minimize identity theft.
Machine learning is a fast-growing trend in the health care industry, thanks to the advent of wearable devices and sensors that can use data to assess a patient’s health in real time. The technology can also help medical experts analyze data to identify trends or red flags that may lead to improved diagnoses and treatment.
Marketing and sales
Websites recommending items you might like based on previous purchases are using machine learning to analyze your buying history – and promote other items you’d be interested in. This ability to capture data, analyze it and use it to personalize a shopping experience (or implement a marketing campaign) is the future of retail.
Oil and gas
Finding new energy sources. Analyzing minerals in the ground. Predicting refinery sensor failure. Streamlining oil distribution to make it more efficient and cost-effective. The number of machine learning use cases for this industry is vast – and still expanding.
Analyzing data to identify patterns and trends is key to the transportation industry, which relies on making routes more efficient and predicting potential problems to increase profitability. The data analysis and modeling aspects of machine learning are important tools to delivery companies, public transportation and other transportation organizations.
What are some popular machine learning methods?
Two of the most widely adopted machine learning methods are supervised learning and unsupervised learning – but there are also other methods of machine learning. Here’s an overview of the most popular types.
Supervised learning algorithms are trained using labeled examples, such as an input where the desired output is known. For example, a piece of equipment could have data points labeled either “F” (failed) or “R” (runs). The learning algorithm receives a set of inputs along with the corresponding correct outputs, and the algorithm learns by comparing its actual output with correct outputs to find errors. It then modifies the model accordingly. Through methods like classification, regression, prediction and gradient boosting, supervised learning uses patterns to predict the values of the label on additional unlabeled data. Supervised learning is commonly used in applications where historical data predicts likely future events. For example, it can anticipate when credit card transactions are likely to be fraudulent or which insurance customer is likely to file a claim.
Unsupervised learning is used against data that has no historical labels. The system is not told the “right answer.” The algorithm must figure out what is being shown. The goal is to explore the data and find some structure within. Unsupervised learning works well on transactional data. For example, it can identify segments of customers with similar attributes who can then be treated similarly in marketing campaigns. Or it can find the main attributes that separate customer segments from each other. Popular techniques include self-organizing maps, nearest-neighbor mapping, k-means clustering and singular value decomposition. These algorithms are also used to segment text topics, recommend items and identify data outliers.
Semisupervised learning is used for the same applications as supervised learning. But it uses both labeled and unlabeled data for training – typically a small amount of labeled data with a large amount of unlabeled data (because unlabeled data is less expensive and takes less effort to acquire). This type of learning can be used with methods such as classification, regression and prediction. Semisupervised learning is useful when the cost associated with labeling is too high to allow for a fully labeled training process. Early examples of this include identifying a person’s face on a web cam.
Reinforcement learning is often used for robotics, gaming and navigation. With reinforcement learning, the algorithm discovers through trial and error which actions yield the greatest rewards. This type of learning has three primary components: the agent (the learner or decision maker), the environment (everything the agent interacts with) and actions (what the agent can do). The objective is for the agent to choose actions that maximize the expected reward over a given amount of time. The agent will reach the goal much faster by following a good policy. So the goal in reinforcement learning is to learn the best policy.